Diet in Dyslipidemia / Heart diseases
It refers to Deranged or abnormal levels of lipids in the blood. Excess cholesterol in the blood tends to get deposited along the intimal layer of the arteries. As these deposits , the arteries thicken and Harden and when major arteries are involved angina, myocardial infarction, strokes or paralytic attacks may occur. The lipid profile includes total cholesterol (HDL, LDL), triglycerides and HDL: Cholesterol ratio. Goal is to increase HDL levels and reduce levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in blood.
A low fat diet is prescribed in this which decreases the amount of calories that are eaten for fat. Following this diet may help lower your blood cholesterol. High blood cholesterol is often seen in people who are overweight. High blood cholesterol may also run in families. One has to include more fiber in diet.
HIGH FAT + STESS = HEART RISK
Diet in Hypertension / Blood Pressure
Hypertensionis defined as increase in blood pressure above normal. It involves many organs and systems including the heart, endocrine glands, kidney and nervous system and may damage these if not controlled. It has been associated with increased risk of developing heart disease.
Hypertension is associated with excessive fat and salt intake . It is also related to obesity and diabetes. Psychological stress is another reason for increasing blood pressure levels.
Diet in Hypothyroid
Hypothyroid is a metabolic disorder occurring , due to imbalance of thyroid hormone resulting in lowered Basal Metabolic Rate of the body and consequently increased body weight.
Symtoms of hypothyroid include :
- Gain in weight
- Dry skin and hair
- Change in menstrual plattern
- Body temperature below normal
In hypothyroidism ,the metabolic rate of the body decreases by 30%-40%.If the person continues the same dietary habits and energy intake it leads to positive energy balance and weight gain. Dietary changes may be helpful: some foods, contain natural goitrogens that appear to act by interfering with thyroid hormone synthesis.
Diet in Gout/ Elevated Uric Acid
Elevated uric acid levels are due to foods with high purine content. To bring down these levels we suggest avoiding foods with a high purine content. If your uric acid level is elevated & even if you have no symptoms you should avoid those foods with a high purine content.
Obese persons may be more prone to gout. Try ro achieve and maintain ideal body weight.
Diet in Gastrointestinal Surgeries/ Dental Problems
Soft diet is recommended in certain medical conditions. A soft diet contains food that are soft and easy for you to chew or swallow. These foods may be chopped, ground, mashed, pureed, and moist.
Eating soft food may help if you have problems chewing swallowing. People who have had certain type of surgery, such as head, neck or stomach surgery may need to eat a soft diet. People who have problems with their teeth or mouth may also need to have a soft diet.
One has to Avoid any foods that are hard for you to chew or swallow.
Diet in Diabetes Management
Diabetes mellitus refers to an increase in blood sugar levels. This occurs due to deficiency of insulin in the body.
Diet plays a very important role in diabetes management as 50% of the treatment is dependent on medication and 50% on diet, exercise and lifestyle. If we consider our body as a car, diet as accelerator of the car. Better the discipline in diet less will be the accident of complication of diabetes. If uncontrolled , it can lead to severe complications affecting eyes, blood vessels and kidneys.
First line treatment of a newly diagnosed diabetic is diet and exercise and weight loss treatment, which is always on the normal nutrition needs of that person for positive health.
Our diet has three major nutrients. Carbohydrates proteins ,and Fats. All are important for us but for diabetic carbohydrates have a major role to play, as this is the nutrient that converts in to glucose in our bodies.So quantity type and spacing of carbohydrates is important which can only be decided by a dietician according to individual needs and raise in blood sugar level.
Diet in Constipation
Constipation or the irregular, infrequent or difficult passage of stools is one of the common problems faced by people of all age groups. Elimination of stools becomes difficult and painful. Common symptoms of constipation include bloating, sluggishness feeling of fullness.
Constipation could be due to reduced physical activity, Insufficient fluid intake , lowfibre intake, psychological factors long term use of laxatives.
Diet has major role to play in this condition as various fibre rich foods should be included in diet with increased fluid intake.
Diet in Diarrhoea
- Diarrhoea is sudden onset and frequent passage of watery and unformed stools, often three or more in day.
- Symptoms include abdominal pains, cramps and weakness which may be accompanied with fever and vomiting at times.
- Causes of diarrhoea may be infections caused by unhygienic foods and water, food allergies, outside eating of food, deficiencies of vitamin B , consumption of certain medications, psychological stress and anxiety may also lead to diarrhoea at times.
- Acute diarrhoea may resulting dehydration because of the excessive loss of water and electrolytes . Therefore replacement of water and electrolytes plays a major role in planning diets for diarrhoea.
Diet in Liver Disorders
The liver is the largest and most complex organs of the body involved in multiple functioning of nutrient absorption and metabolism like proteins, carbohydrates rates and lipids besides vitamins and minerals . It is also involved in the detoxication of bacterial decomposition products , mineral poisons and certain drugs and dyes. Any insult on the liver can have direct bearing on the nutritional status of an individual.
Liver diseases may have a no of causes like
- Metabolic syndrome
- Nutritional factors
- Carcinoma etc
A symptom common to all liver disease is jaundice which is a result of increased bilirubin levels in the blood. When the liver is affected by any infection, it results in the inflammation of the hepatic cells , causing hepatitis.
The basis of treatment of liver diseases is adequate rest along with dietary modifications. Dietary management helps to relieve symptoms , aids in regeneration of liver cells and to prevent further liver damage .
Diet in Kidney Disorders
Nephrotic syndrome is the inflammation of the nephron . It is characterised by a group of symptoms resulting from kidney damage and impaired nephron function. It is a disease primarily confined to the glomeruli .
It is manifested by severe oedema, generalised puffiness around the eyes, extremities, especially around ankle and feet, swelling of the abdomen, facial swelling, foamy appearance of urine, weight gain due to fluid retention, anorexia and hypertension.
It can manifest in form of ARF(acute renal failure); CRF (chronic renal failure); Dialysis or renal transplant may be needed.
Dietary modifications help to maintain a state of good nutrition, to control or correct protein deficiency , to prevent deem and to provide palatable , easily digested meals as per individual needs.
Diet in PCOD
Polycystic ovarian syndrome/disease is a metabolic /hormonal disorder that affects 5-7.5% of all women. It is a no one cause of infertility if left untreated, can increase risk of endometrial cancer, heart disease and diabetes.
Approximately 50_60% of women with pcosare obese. Losing even 5% of body weight can lead to decrease in insulin resistance , hence better utilization of insulin and decreasing risk of diabetes. diet also help to reduce the risk of heart disease.
Lifestyle changes take time and there are no quick fixes.
Set reasonable short term diet and exercise goals. it is better to make small lifestyle changes that are sustainable than to make dramatic changes that only last a few weeks.
Diet in Osteoporosis
In Osteoporosis there is marked decrease in the bone mass, when bone demineralisation takes place at a a faster rate than bone mineralisation, which leads to fragile, spongy and lighter bones leading to easy fractures, with long healing time.
It is very common among women in post menopausal phase of life. Calcium and vitamin D protect against osteoporosis . High calcium intake in early years of life contibutes to greater bone strength, whereas in old age one can prevent further bone loss.
Dietary modifications include increase in the intake of calcium, phosphorous rich foods in diet with the right amount of proteins in the diet.